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HOME : Near Eastern Art : Cuneiform Tablets : Sumerian Cuneiform Tablet
Sumerian Cuneiform Tablet - AM.0324
Origin: Eastern Mediterranean
Circa: 2027 BC
Dimensions: 3.07" (7.8cm) high x 1.81" (4.6cm) wide
Collection: Ancient Writings
Medium: Clay

Location: Great Britain
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Sumerian cuneiform is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. First appearing in the 4th millennium BC in what is now Iraq, it was dubbed cuneiform (‘wedge-shaped’) because of the distinctive wedge form of the letters, created by pressing a reed stylus into wet clay. Early Sumerian writings were essentially pictograms, which became simplified in the early and mid 3rd millennium BC to a series of strokes, along with a commensurate reduction in the number of discrete signs used (from c.1500 to 600). The script system had a very long life and was used by the Sumerians as well as numerous later groups – notably the Assyrians, Elamites, Akkadians and Hittites – for around three thousand years. Certain signs and phonetic standards live on in modern languages of the Middle and Far East, but the writing system is essentially extinct. It was therefore cause for great excitement when the ‘code’ of ancient cuneiform was cracked by a group of English, French and German Assyriologists and philologists in the mid 19th century AD. This opened up a vital source of information about these ancient groups that could not have been obtained in any other way.

Cuneiform was used on monuments dedicated to heroic – and usually royal – individuals, but perhaps its most important function was that of record keeping. The palace-based society at Ur and other large urban centres was accompanied by a remarkably complex and multifaceted bureaucracy, which was run by professional administrators and a priestly class, all of whom were answerable to central court control. Most of what we know about the way the culture was run and administered comes from cuneiform tablets, which record the everyday running of the temple and palace complexes in minute detail, as in the present case. The Barakat Gallery has secured the services of Professor Lambert (University of Birmingham), a renowned expert in the decipherment and translation of cuneiform, to examine and process the information on these tablets. His scanned analysis is presented here. This document is a list of rations paid out to official messengers.

Professor Lambert’s translation is provided below:

‘Clay tablet with 34 lines of Sumerian cuneiform on the obverse, reverse and left edge. A small patch of damaged surface on the reverse, otherwise condition fine. An administrative document from the period of the Third Dynasty of Ur, dated to the second year of Ibbi-Sin, last king of the dynasty, c. 2027 BC. It is a listing of rations issued to official messengers.


2 roast sheep, 20 sila of soup, 20 fish: Sharrum-bani, vice-regent. 1 sila of soup, 1 fish: Shu-Ishtaran, king’s messenger. 1 sila of soup, 1 fish: Iddin-Erra, king’s messenger when they went from Der to the king. 1 sila of soup, 1 fish: Sharum-Ili, king’s messenger when he went to Der. 1…., 3 sila of soup, 2 fish: La-Qipum, cup-bearer, king’s messenger when he went for the king’s offering. 1 sila of soup, 1 fish: Shurush-Kin, [king’s messenger], when he went for…..1 sila of soup, 1 fish…..: Ahuni, king’s messenger when Ilum-Bani……., went to renew….1 sila of soup, 1 fish: Lu-Sin, king’s messenger when he went to arrest the runaway servants of the palace. 1 sila of soup, 1 fish: Lugal-a…,king’s messenger when he went to the governor. 1 sila of soup, 1 fish: Pululu, groom when he went to Anshebaran-Zikum. Disbursement of the month Kirisi-ak. Year: the high priestess of Inanna of Uruk was chosen by divination. 10th day.

The sila was a measure of capacity, about .85 of a litre. Fish were the major source of protein for Sumerians, both sea fish and fresh-water fish, because cattle could not be kept easily due to lack of good pasture for most of the year, though sheep and goats were common. Both fresh and dried fish were common elements of diet.’ - (AM.0324)


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